Digital Media in Schools During the Covid-19 Lockdown: Teachers’ Experiences with Choosing Teaching Strategies
N. Esterl, S. Berger & N. Nistor
The Covid-19 pandemic unexpectedly led school teachers to exclusively using digital technologies. Few insights exist so far on how teachers choose, in such situations, digitally supported teaching strategies to actively engage their students in the learning process. We explored these choices by conducting semi-structured interviews with eight secondary school teachers from a large city in southern Germany during school closures. Relaying on the ICAP framework, we found that, for instance, teachers used websites with hypertexts to engage students actively, playful programming platforms to engage them constructively, or online group discussions to engage them interactively. Teachers’ choice had to take technical constrains into account, such as the limits of available mobile data volumes, students’ digital literacy, and the purpose for which new material was presented. Our findings suggest…
Measuring Learners’ Self-regulated Learning Skills from Their Digital Traces and Learning Pathways
Flipping the classroom requires from students some self-regulated learning skills, as they must have engaged in learning activities prior to attending classes. The study we describe in this paper was done in the context of a 15-week flipped course delivered online to a large class of undergraduate students. We collected various time-stamped digital traces generated by the students’ engagement in the required weekly learning activities (H5P interactive videos, quizzes and worksheets). The collected data allowed the generation of visual learning pathways, from which several types of learning profiles emerged. A distance measure between the students’ learning pathways and the instructor’s recommended pathway was found to be negatively correlated with exam performance. The results from a survey collecting students’ perceptions of their engagement with the learning activities are also presented.
Using Dialogic Feedback to Create Learning Communities During COVID-19: Lessons for Future Teacher Development
A. Hibert, M. Phillips, D. Gašević, N. Pantić, J. MacLean & Y-S. Tsai
The COVID-19 pandemic substantively impacted educational processes and posed urgent questions regarding how teachers can adapt their practices to create supportive learning communities in online environments. The purpose of this study was to understand how teachers provided dialogic feedback using technologies to create learning communities despite the unexpected switch to online learning during the COVID-19 lockdowns. Ten pre-service teachers and six in-service teachers were interviewed to understand their experiences using technology-assisted feedback during the COVID-19 lockdowns. Our findings show that the focus of feedback shifted during the pandemic. Over time, both teachers and students became more comfortable navigating online environments, going from self-level feedback that provided little support for learning to…
Design a Dashboard for Secondary School Learners to Support Mastery Learning in a Gamified Learning Environment
X. Hou, T. Nagashima & V. Aleven
Although prior studies have shown the benefits of using learning analytics dashboards (LADs) in non-gamified contexts in higher education, few have focused on pre-college users and gamified learning environments. In this paper, we present the design of Gwynnette Dashboard, an interactive student-facing LAD for secondary school learners that aims at promoting mastery learning in a gamified intelligent tutoring system. It contains three main components: a planet chart with two control buttons, a connected skill progress bar with a skill mastery growth line, and an overall mastery progress bar. We also report two user-centered design changes after validating our design with 18 students iteratively. Our preliminary evaluation of a fully-developed version with 2 students revealed that…
Development of Actionable Insights for Regulating Students’ Collaborative Writing of Scientific Texts
C. Hoffmann, N. Mandran, C. d’Ham, S. Rebaudo & M. Anis Haddouche
We develop indicators for teachers to monitor and regulate students’ collaborative writing on a web-based science learning environment. Visualizations of carefully selected indicators are proposed to teachers in order to facilitate the tracking, analysis and management of the students’ collaborative work process over time. Our research method is based on a user-centered approach. Via focus groups and interviews, teachers have participated in the design of the indicators and visualizations. This communication presents (a) the mapping from collected data to educational constructs underlying our analytical approach for collaborative writing, (b) indicators and visualizations produced to provide actionable insights to teachers, and (c) lessons learned from our iterative human-centered design process. The results are transferable to other learning environments and design processes.
A Conceptual Framework for Creating Mobile Collaboration Tools
S. Simon, I. Marfisi-Schottman & S. George
Field trips combine a number of favourable conditions for collaborative and situated learning. Research has shown that collaboration can be improved by the use of digital tools, such as interactive tables. However, existing tools are heavy and thus unfit for field trips. This article introduces a conceptual framework for the design of collaborative tools in a mobile context. This framework is based on three features: a shared mobile interactive display, a modular tool to support collaboration and scriptable tools to design collaborative educational scenarios. The overall objective is to provide teachers with solutions for designing field-based learning activities and to support learners’ collaboration.
🎤 2-Min Pitch Presentation: Poster Session B, Thursday 23/09, 9:00h @ Poster & Demo Room
Designing LADs That Promote Sensemaking: A Participatory Tool
M. Sadallah, J-M. Gilliot, S. Iksal, K. Quelennec, M. Vermeulen, L. Neyssensas, O. Aubert & R. Venant
Learning Analytics Dashboards (LADs) are data visualization tools built to empower teachers and learners to make purposeful decisions that impact the learning process. Due to their relatively recent emergence and the scarcity of studies on their design principles, dashboard design remains a major area of investigation in learning analytics research, and large scale diffusion to their stakeholders remains limited. We promote human-centered approaches for LADs design since their success in terms of acceptance and adoption greatly depends on the level of stakeholder involvement in their design. In this paper, we present a tool to support the participatory design of LADs. First experiments during a pilot study with teachers demonstrate that the proposed tool encourages group work, and in-depth exploration of LADs use.
Design Pattern for Exploration and Experimentation: Result of Field Study on a Toy-Based Serious Game Design Method
n this paper we report how we combined and tested a couple of similar methods to design serious games (SGs) meant to foster learning through exploration and experimentation of the systems of a domain simulation. The main method tested propose basing SG design on toy design set both in the core of the game and the domain to teach. Our experiment on both methods has two objectives: measure the efficiency of both methods and extract new design patterns to help designing serious games based on a toy and thus fostering learning through exploration and experimentation. Our experiment is a longitudinal field study four years long while we contributed and analysed the design of 25 SG prototypes made by 100+ designers. Our results show that the methods are efficient combined and identify some of their issues. Results also provide a field-tested full design pattern to help create new SGs based on a toy.
Personalizing the Sequencing of Learning Activities by Using the Q-Learning and the Bayesian Knowledge Tracing
n this paper, we present an approach for personalizing the sequencing of learning activities that relies on the Q-learning. The Q-learning learns a sequencing policy to select learning activities that aims to maximize the learning gain of students. On the one hand, the core of this approach is the use of the Bayesian knowledge tracing (BKT) to model the student knowledge state and to define the Q-Learning reward function. On the other hand, we defined with experts rules to generate simulated students. These simulated data were used to initialize the Q-table of the Q-Learning and answer its“cold start” problem. We present empirical results showing that…
Towards an Authoring Tool to Help Teachers Create Mobile Collaborative Learning Games for Field Trips
I. Marfisi-Schottman, A. Laine, P. Laforcade, S. George, S. Simon, M. May, M. Zammit & L. Blin
Pedagogical activities that combine mobility, collaboration and game mechanics present significant advantages to attract students’ attention and maintain their engagement in learning. Teachers naturally try to combine mobility and collaboration when they create field trips. Indeed, they identify several Points Of Interest that learners physically need to go to, thus requiring mobility, and they usually group students in teams to encourage collaboration, even if such collaboration is seldom attained. However, using the third element – game mechanics – is harder for teachers because they are not familiar with game models and often not gamers themselves. In this article, we present the MOCOGA Model, a MObile COllaborative learning GAme Model that is designed to adapt to many types of field trips. This model also offers…
Process and Self-regulation Explainable Feedback for Novice Programmers Appears Ineffectual
E. Félix, F. Amadieu, R. Venant & J. Broisin
This paper investigates how to provide novice programmers with feedback about their learning process including hints and explanations to improve their learning. The aim is to improve the feedback effectiveness and perceived utility by making it more meaningful through the use of explanations. Our proposals were implemented in the context of computer science education and an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of explainable feedback on changes in learners’ strategies, performance and perceptions. The first results of this experiment show no significant effect of process and self-regulation feedback (explained or not) on students’ strategies or learning outcomes. Also, we conducted a qualitative analysis that allowed us to propose a series of recommendations for stakeholders exploring feedback explainability.
Does Deliberately Failing Improve Learning in Introductory Computer Science?
S. Thorgeirsson, T. Sinha, F. Friedrich & Z. Su
We report our experience with technology-enhanced Productive Failure (PF) in an introductory computer science course. First, we sought to assess whether the use of algorithm visualization tools during the PF problem-solving phase enhanced learning. Second, we used an experimental study to measure learning effects of administering failure-driven scaffolding (FDS) during the PF sessions, that is, explicitly nudging generation with suboptimal representations deliberately designed to lead to failures. Results from surveys and log data indicated that our visualization tools helped students explore the problem space and performance data signaled that FDS improved students’ constructive reasoning (Cohen’s d 0.194, BF01 2.55) and did not harm posttest scores (BF01 3.17) relative to no explicit scaffolding…
What Teachers Would Expect from a Pedagogical Agent System Working at a Classroom Level: A Focus Group Study
E.R. Roa, D.K. Raave, I-A. Chounta & M. Pedaste
Applications of pedagogical agent (PA) systems incorporating animated characters in school settings have mainly addressed students at an individual level. However, how these systems could be used and designed for supporting teachers while taking advantage of artificial intelligence (AI) technology is an open question. Therefore, we carried out a focus group to understand what teachers would expect and need from such a system at a classroom level. Our focus group protocol sought to discover design and practical considerations in four dimensions. 1) System design considerations, where teachers expect the system to incorporate speech recognition and to “learn” from them while doing their practice. 2) System collaboration, teachers wanted support in their pedagogy by considering students’ achievement profiles, and by finding and sorting learning material as needed. 3) PA role in the classroom, we identified…
Instant or Distant: A Temporal Network Tale of Two Interaction Platforms and Their Influence on Collaboration
M. Saqr & S. López-Pernas
This study compared two iterations of the same course where students had the same assignments. In the first iteration, the students had to use the typical discussion forums offered by the popular Moodle learning management system. In the second iteration, students had to use Discord, the popular gaming chat application. Students’ interactions were retrieved from both platforms and cleaned. Two social networks were constructed using the same methods to evaluate the differences in patterns of interaction between the two platforms, the group interactivity, the reciprocity, and the quality of interactions. The aim is to study how far an instant messenger facilitates or otherwise constrains collaboration. We use temporal network methods to further understand the pace, rhythm, and temporality of interactions.
🎤 2-Min Pitch Presentation: Poster Session A, Wednesday 22/09, 15:30h @ Poster & Demo Room
Mobile Telepresence Robots in Education: Strengths, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Challenges
M. Perifanou, A.A. Economides, P. Häfner & T. Wernbacher
A mobile telepresence robot (MTR) is a semi-autonomous robot whose movement and interaction with its surrounding environment is controlled by a person from a distance. In education, MTR enable learners or educators to virtually participate in a class from a distance. TRinE: Telepresence Robots in Education is an EU project that aims at providing an interactive toolkit to support educators, learners, and others in order to integrate MTR in education. During January and February 2022, project’s partners conducted a qualitative study to collect the experiences and views of educators, learners, and other stakeholders (i.e., administrators, technical support staff, librarians) regarding the use of MTR in education across Austria, Germany, Greece, France, Iceland, Malta, and USA. A total of 19 persons were interviewed and 66 persons participated in 12 focus groups discussions. The findings describe…
What Kind and How Many?: Exploring Feedback in Remote Training of Procedural Skills in Physiotherapy
I. Villagrán, R. Hernández, J. Fuentes, G. Torres, D. Silva, N. Araya, M. Delgado, C. Miranda, A. Neyem, J. Varas & I. Hilliger
Practical learning in physiotherapy education became challenging during the pandemic. Socio-sanitary constraints limited hands-on scenarios and instructors’ opportunities to provide timely feedback to their students. Asynchronous remote training through a feedback-oriented platform is an alternative with potential benefits beyond emergency distance learning. This preliminary quantitative study analyzes the results of the implementation of an asynchronous remote strategy for teaching manual techniques to Physiotherapy undergraduate students. Sixty-one students reviewed a procedure video, recorded their execution of the procedure, and uploaded it to an online platform. An instructor assessed the video through an observation scale, providing students with different feedback inputs. Students repeated the process if they did not meet the cut-off score. In the development of…
Towards Effective Blended Learning Through the Eyes of Students: A Survey Study in Transition into Face-to-Face Education
G. Astudillo, I. Hilliger, F. Rodríguez & J. Baier
Many researchers consider that blended or hybrid learning implies a meaningful combination of online and face-to-face activities. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, studies had shown promising results of blended learning to improve student performance. However, the design and implementation of effective combinations is far from trivial, considering students’ differences regarding their demographics and self-regulatory capacities. This paper presents a survey study developed in an Engineering school of a Latin American university that transitioned from online learning to a hybrid format in mid-2021. Quantitative data was collected throughout an online questionnaire applied to a convenience sample of 1,124 students. Subgroup differences were identified by means of exploratory factor analysis and clustering. Two different subgroups emerged from the data: those who prefer online learning and those who prefer…
Exploring Teacher’s Orchestration Actions in Online and In-Class Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
L. Hakami, I. Amarasinghe, E. Hakami & D. Hernandez-Leo
Teacher orchestration of technology-enhanced learning has received increasing attention as a factor for enhancing students’ learning gains. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the impact of learning settings on teachers’ orchestration actions. In this paper, we considered two different settings of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) activities, namely online and in-class, and studied their influence on teachers’ orchestration actions. Data was collected from five sessions for each setting. The findings indicated that during the in-class sessions there were more teacher-individual interactions, announcements, checking participation/responses tabs, and dashboard interventions conducted by the teacher. In the online setting, however, more teacher-class interactions occurred when compared to the in-class setting. The implications of this study…
CLP: A Platform for Competitive Learning
A. Vats, G. Guzun & D.C. Anastasiu
We introduce the Competitive Learning Platform (CLP), an online continuous improvement tool that provides automatic partial performance feedback to students or groups of students on individual or collaborative assignments. CLP motivates students to do their best and come up with new solutions that can lead to improved assignment results before the assignment deadline. In this work, we describe the CLP system and present the results of a comprehensive set of analyses aimed at gauging the impact of utilizing this platform on student motivation, engagement, and performance. The analyses are based on a rich dataset containing CLP submission, student outcome, and student feedback data obtained from a variety of undergraduate and graduate classes using the tool at two universities over a period of five years. The sample includes 18 courses, 606 students, and 15782 CLP submissions. Results indicate that CLP…
The Enablers and Barriers of Using Slack for Computer-Mediated Communication to Support the Learning Journey: A Case Study at a University of Applied Sciences
Slack is a tool originally used for computer-mediated communication within software companies as well as from academics to enable communication and collaboration. Slack is currently used in Higher Education for pedagogical purposes. This paper presents a case study of its application to support the learning journey in a German University of applied sciences. The study identifies enablers and barriers of the use of Slack as they come out from learning experience research with 20 undergraduate student interviews in their first semester as well as from observations of a Slack channel that the students and their educators used. The study identifies enablers with students reporting that Slack is easy to use, the discussions are flowing, the communication with educators is personal and friendly, and they get the opportunity to network and socialize with…
Studying Cohort Influence on Student Performance Prediction in Multi-cohort University Courses
P. Vemuri, S. Poelmans, H. Pandya & M. Snoeck
Advances in educational data mining and learning analytics techniques allow instructors and institutions to analyze log data generated from learning management systems to inform themselves about student learning and success. Over the years, several machine learning techniques have been developed, used, and researched to provide more accurate predictions of students’ performance in courses. These techniques commonly need and are focused on large sample sizes and low dimensionality which is not the case for university courses in blended contexts. In some studies, student cohorts across years and programs are merged together to increase sample sizes and achieve better prediction accuracies. While there have been other recent studies experimenting with…
The best poster award will consider two scores:
- 50% Score will be given by a committee formed by conference chairs.
- 50% Score will be given by the attendants of the session (Wed. 14/09).